Civics and Health
by William H. Allen
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The controlling motive of the moral clinic has proved infectious. There is reason to believe that the alliance of medicine and religion has come to stay, and that the present excitement over psychotherapeutics will settle down into a scientific utilization of religious motive and medical knowledge to prevent mental and moral disease. Unwholesome, morbid, self-centered thought is driven out. A recognition of others' claims takes its place. Hypnotism, suggestion, and group enthusiasm are used to their utmost possibilities. The success of the Boston moral clinic is due to establishing in the mind of the neurasthenic, the alcoholic, the world-weary, and the purposeless a truer conception of the pleasures that result from vitality and from altruistic effort.

It is too early to classify by kind of functional disorder the patients treated. Results from one patient have been described in newspapers as follows:

A school-teacher, as a result of nervous collapse, had lost control, began to fear the children under her care, and thought of relinquishing her profession. She was instructed in the art of self-control and the control of others; the notion of fear was dislodged and a sentiment of love for her little charges took its place. In the course of a few weeks this conscientious and experienced teacher regained her poise and found herself performing her duties better than ever before.

Many alcoholics have for months given evidences of complete cure. Stories almost incredible are quickening pastor and physician alike throughout the country. After individual treatments are given, after religious motive is appealed to, and the soul stirred to heed the lessons of religion, medicine, and sociology, patients are given the work cure. Thus a branch of social service is established, where after-treatment is given to the patient whose thoughts have been turned from himself to others. All of a sudden the church finds itself in need of definite knowledge as to opportunities for altruistic work, as to definite community needs not met, as to people in distress who can be relieved by volunteers, as to agencies which can be called upon to cooeperate both in treating the individual and in utilizing his energies for others' benefits.

Because a relatively small percentage of men and women are neurasthenic, melancholy, morbid, alcoholic, the lesson of the moral clinic is most serviceable when extended for the benefit of the "not yet alcoholic" and the "not quite neurasthenic." In other words, individuals in thinking of themselves must learn the health value and soul value of purpose that centers in others' happiness. That thing which we have called tact in personality, and which in the past was discovered by induction, namely, the law of mental hygiene and the control it gives over others' health, must be taught in schools to children by wholesale, must be taught in medical and theological schools, to all physicians and all pastors. This alliance of medicine and religion, which is at present confined to one or two moral clinics, should be incorporated into education, into social work, into church work, becoming thus a part of civilization's normal point of view.

Mental hygiene cannot survive conscious violation of the fundamental laws of medicine and religion. The alliance of medicine and religion will prove utterly futile unless habits of living and of thinking are inculcated that conform to nature's law of self-preservation and to God's law of brotherly love. Self-centered religion, like self-centered medicine, destroys both body and soul.


[17] The alliance of mental hygiene, medicine, and religion is discussed in the Emmanuel Church book, Religion and Medicine; the Moral Control of Nervous Disorders; also in its bulletins, Religion and Medicine.



When a grammar-school boy I learned from the game "Quotations" that Louis Agassiz, scientist, had written the sentence with which I introduce a final appeal for living that will permit physical and civic efficiency. Agassiz has been called "America's greatest educator," and again "the finest specimen yet discovered of the genus homo, of the species intelligens." The story of his long life as teacher of teachers reads like a romance. But among his gifts to education and citizenship none can be made to mean more than the simple proposition that natural law is as sacred as a moral principle. All who remember this "beatitude" will be helped to solve many perplexing problems of dress, diet, play, education, philanthropy, morals, and civics.

Reverence for the natural carries with it a distaste for the unnatural. Those who obey natural law soon come to regard its violation as a nuisance when not immoral. On the other hand, compromise with the unnatural, like compromise with vice, quickly leads first to toleration and thence to interest and practice. Therefore the importance of giving children Agassiz's conception of the sacredness of the laws that govern the human body. A passion for the natural is a strong foundation for habits of health and a priceless possession for one who wishes to know morality in its highest sense.

"Natural" is less attractive to us than it would be had Agassiz first interpreted it for us rather than Rousseau or present-day exponents of "the simple life," "back to nature," and "back to the land." It is too often forgotten that no one sins against natural law more grievously than the primitive man or the isolated man in daily contact with non-human nature. Communing with nature seems not only to require communing with man but to give joys in proportion as the nature lover is concerned for the human society of which he is a part. Natural law does not become a moral principle until man is benefited or injured by man's use of nature's resources within and about him. Natural living according to natural law must be something sounder, more beautiful, and more progressive than can be read into or out of mountains, trees, brooks, and sky, or primitive society.

Natural law points to a Nature Fore as well as a Nature Back, to a Nature Up and Beyond as well as a Nature Down and Behind. The Nature that was yesterday will not do for to-morrow, any more than a man is willing to give up his nature aspirations for the careless, animal ways of romping childhood. Civilization is constantly urged at each step to repeat the prayer of Holmes's old man who dreams for the Autocrat of the Breakfast Table:

Oh for one hour of youthful joy! Give back my twentieth spring! I'd rather laugh a bright-haired boy Than reign a gray-beard king!

Off with the wrinkled spoils of age! Away with learning's crown! Tear out life's wisdom-written page, And dash its trophies down!

One moment let my life blood stream From boyhood's fount of flame! Give me one giddy, reeling dream Of life all love and fame!

But every experiment in turning back exalts the present and the future. Gifts as well as problems are seen to come with complexity, and civilization flatly refuses to relinquish these gifts. Sound maturity is better than youth or age:

The smiling angel dropped his pen,— "Why, this will never do; The man would be a boy again, And be a father too!"

Problems of health and of civics can never be solved by appealing to Nature Back, when only the few could be healthy, when one baby in three died in infancy, when old age was toothless and childish, when infection ravished nations, when the average life was twenty years shorter than now, and when unspeakable filth was tolerated in air, street, and house. They can all be solved by appeals to Nature Fore, which holds up an ideal of mankind physically able to enjoy all the benefits and to conquer all the dangers of civilization. It is not looking back, but looking in and forward that reveals what natural law promises to those who obey it.

By using numerous tests which have been suggested in preceding chapters we can learn how far we and our communities obey natural law when working and playing. Health for health's sake has nowhere been urged. On the contrary, healthful living has been frankly valued for its aid to efficient living by individual and by community; wherefore the emphasis upon others' health and upon the civic aspects of our own health. Tests furnish us with the technic necessary to efficient living; civics, with the larger reason; natural law, with the "pillar of fire by night" to help us choose our path among habits and pleasures whose immediate results upon efficient living cannot easily be determined.

Fashions, tastes, mannerisms, personal indulgences, have been left for Agassiz to deal with. Generally speaking, we all know of numerous acts committed and numerous acts omitted in our daily routine that convict us of not living up to our knowledge of physiology and hygiene,—wearing tight shoes or tight corsets, drinking strong coffee, smoking, reading while reclining, failing to insure clean air and clean bodies. Then there are other acts whose omission or commission violate no physical law so far as we can see, but whose unnaturalness we concede,—putting chalk on the eyebrows, wearing false hair or curious puffs, putting perfumery in the bath or on handkerchiefs, assuming artificial poses of body or mouth. These violations of natural law are forced upon us by "style" or "custom" or family convenience. When we come to choose between following fashions and disobeying them, we generally decide that it is better to do a foolish or slightly harmful thing than to occasion criticism, mirth, or even special notice by our dress or our abstemiousness.

Last night I went to a dinner party at eight. I ate and ate a great variety of palatable foods that Nature Back never knew. After two hours of eating I imbibed for two hours the tobacco smoke of the gentlemen who made up the party. I knew that eight o'clock was too late for me to begin eating, that two hours was too long to eat, that the tobacco of others was bad for my health and for to-day's efficiency. All this I knew when I accepted the invitation to dinner. I went with no intention of preventing others from smoking or of lecturing my host or his chef or his guests for the unhygienic practices of our day. Yet the physical ills were more than offset by certain definite gains to the school children of New York that will result from last night's meeting. Natural law was abated in part. But I declined certain dishes that would not agree with me, helped myself sparingly of many dishes, avoided tobacco and wines, and by a three-mile walk in the open air, a bath, and a good long night's sleep have almost recovered my right to talk of the sacredness of natural law.

Nature Back says I should not have gone to this dinner. But I was compelled to go. I know I am going to others. I cannot do my work unless I overdraw my current health account. Nature Fore tells me that effective cooeperation with others will frequently require me to eat at the dinner hour of others, to retire at others' sleeping time, to wear what others will approve, to violate natural law. But Nature Fore also tells me how to build up a health reserve so that I can meet these emergencies without endangering my health credit.

Nature Back demands "dress reform." Nature Fore tells me that I can march in step with my contemporaries without either attracting attention or discrediting and affronting natural law. Passion for the natural has effected numerous reforms in dress, diet, and social habits, until commerce provides a natural adaptation of practically every fashion. With regard to few things is it necessary to-day for any one who reads magazines to do violence to bodily health for fashion's sake. We may wear what we will, eat what we prefer, decline what is unnatural for us, without inviting censure. The debauches of those unfortunate people who live an unnatural, purposeless existence, affect such a small number that their laws need not be considered here. Natural law makes obedience to itself attractive; hence commerce is rapidly learning to cater to distaste for the unnatural. With few exceptions, only temporary concessions to unnatural living are required in order to dress and act conventionally.

Nature Back throws little light upon conditions necessary for modern labor. It can do nothing but demand the abolition of the factory, the big store, the tenement, the school. Nature Fore says we cannot abolish the means of working out the highest forms of cooeperation. But we can make them compatible with natural living. We can modify conditions so that earning a livelihood will not compel workers to violate natural law at any or all times. The greatest need of factory and tenement reform is for parents and teachers to make a religion of Nature Fore and to instill its principles in the minds of children. Parents and teachers must live the natural before they can make children love the natural. Parents and teachers cannot possibly be natural in this day, cannot live or love natural law unless they know the machinery by which their communities are combating conditions prejudicial to health, morals, and civic efficiency.


Adenoids. See Mouth breathing

Administration, health: steps in evolution, 11-22; knowledge of needs, 220; machinery, 302-309; in combating alcoholism, 362; departments of health: (1) New York City, 26, 27, 47, 48, 61, 71, 84, 296-298, 302; (2) general, 265, 281

Advertisements: motives for, 8; for dental parlors, 100; for consumptives, 234; by physicians, 281; educational, in newspapers and magazines, 323; "no smoking" signs, 365; of patent medicines, 369; that promote health, 378-383

Agassiz, Louis, 398, 400

Air, night, 216. See Fresh air

Alcoholism, 343-362; compulsory instruction in, 3; insurance companies against, 7; disqualifies for railroad service, 193; depletes vitality, 201; results, 209; Hartley's fight against, 253; injures the tuberculous, 274; ineffective ways of combating, 343; incited by bad living conditions, 348; injury to negroes, 350; so-called moderate use, 358; labor unions blacklist drunkards, 361; social dangers, 386; mental hygiene, 392, 396

Animal sanitation, 252, 260, 307

Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor, New York, 177, 236, 253

Babies. See Milk

Bathing: motives for, 8, 13; a social requirement, 14; cold-water, 214

Beauty, reason for health, 15

Bibliography: A Bureau of Child Hygiene (Bureau of Municipal Research), 298; Annals of a Quiet Neighborhood (MacDonald), 110; Aristocracy of Health (Henderson), 208; Bitter Cry of the Children (Spargo), 33, 167; Bulletins of Emmanuel Church, 391; Bureau of Municipal Research, publications, 298; Care of Dependent, Defective, and Delinquent Children (Folks), 174; Charities and the Commons, 325; Child Growth (Newsholme), 120; Children of the Nation (Gorst), 33; Children's Diseases, 326; Clean Milk for New York City, 255; clippings, 370, 382; white-plague scrapbook, 250; Committee on Physical Welfare of School Children, programme, 166, three studies, 168; Crusade against Tuberculosis (Flick), 229; Dangerous Trades (Oliver), 203; Dental Catechism, 94; Dentistry, lectures and treatises, 274; Deterioration, Physical, report on, 339; Development of the Child (Oppenheimer), 110; Dietetic and Hygienic Gazette, 326; Efficient Life (Gulick), 208; Environment of Child at School (North), 142; Pure Food (U.S. Department of Agriculture), 379; Good Health, 326; Health of the School Child (Mackenzie), 132; Heredity (Thompson), 336; How to Give Wisely, 355; International Congress, Tuberculosis, programme, 246-249; Journal of Nursing, 326; Making a Municipal Budget (Bureau of Municipal Research), 306; Milk Industry, 252; Municipal Sanitation in the United States (Chapin), 304; National Hospital Record, 326; New Basis of Civilization (Patten), 33; New Jersey Review of Charities and Corrections, 325; Pediatrics, 326; Physical Culture, 326; Poverty (Hunter), 167; press and magazines, 322-328; Prevention of Tuberculosis (Newsholme), 229; Principles of Relief (Devine), 174; Principles of Sanitary Science and the Public Health (Sedgwick), 304; Psychological Clinic, 106, 326, 330; Real Triumph of Japan (Seaman), 23; Religion and Medicine (Emmanuel Church), 391; reports of schools, 166; reports of schools and health, 310-321; reports of institutions and societies, 327; reports of state and national conferences of charities and corrections, 327; reports of United States bureau of labor, 203; Sanitation of Public Buildings (Gerhard), 139; School Reports and School Efficiency (Snedden and Allen), 311; Social Order and the Saloon (Fox), 351; Study of Children and their School Training (Warner), 110; Study of School Buildings in New York City, 289; Teeth and their Care (Hyatt), 94; Training of the Human Plant (Burbank), 120; Typhoid Fever (Whipple), 13, 16; Uncommercial Traveller (Dickens), 46; Unconscious Mind (Schofield), 110; Vital Statistics (Newsholme), 131

Biggs, Hermann M., M.D., 237, 251, 271, 274, 295

Boston, 34, 155, 161, 241, 250, 290, 395

Boston Society for the Relief and Study of Tuberculosis, 155

Boyd, Emma Garrett, 355

Brannan, John Winters, M.D., 240

Breath, bad, 360, 379

Brightness, abnormal, 104-106

Bronchitis, 67

Brookline, 34

Budget: should provide for cleansing, 61; and tuberculosis, 237; annual health programme, 306; reforms in New York City, 350

Burbank, Luther, 120

Bureau of Municipal Research, 298, 306

Butler, Nicholas Murray, LL.D., 330, 332

Cabot, Richard C., M.D., 181

Calmette's Eye Test, 238

Carnegie Foundation, 285

Caroline Rest, 70, 267

Catching diseases: cost of, 16; unenforced laws, 30; steps in eradicating, 31; germ sociology, 57, 71; favorable soil at school, 58; instruction concerning, 62; mouth a breeding ground for, 63; information for bathers, 64; dangers of, 131; reasons for national board of health, 135; cost of, in New York City, 272; remedies urged, 384

Charity Organization Society, New York, 236, 239

Chicago, 34

Chicken-pox, 64

Child Hygiene, Bureau of: working-paper tests, 192; established, New York City, 298; programme, 299

Child labor: compulsory school attendance, 140; welfare or age test, 142; movement's limitations, 185; national and local committees, 33, 192; physical-fitness tests, 194

Children's Aid Society, New York, 56, 93

Child-saving agencies: cooeperation with schools, 174-183; do-nothingism in, 332

Chorea. See Nervousness

Christian Science, 276, 392

Christmas shopping, 227

Cigarettes. See Tobacco

Cincinnati, 118

Cleanliness: acquired taste, 14; beauty of, 96; personal uncleanliness, 210; cost of, 216; dry cleaning dangerous, 244; in fighting tuberculosis, 250

Cleveland, Ohio, 294

Clippings: scrapbook, 250; envelope method, 324; advertisements, 382

Coffee, strong, 401

Colds, 63-69

College, physical tests, 39

Committee on Physical Welfare of School Children, New York, 39-41, 166, 168, 178, 286, 290, 311

Compulsory laws: school hygiene, 3; purpose of, 33; registration of catching diseases, 57; removal of tuberculosis cases, 237; notification of tuberculosis, 237, 274; hygiene, for private schools, 283; to remove physical defects, 288; restricting alcoholism, 343

Conference on Summer Care of Babies, New York, 260

Congestion: evils avoided, 290; and alcoholism, 348

Conjunctivitis, 71. See Eyes

Connecticut's school reports, 318

Constipation, 210, 216, 347, 357

Consumption. See Tuberculosis

Corsets, 381, 401

Cost: of preventable diseases, 16; of bad breath, 98; of diseases to nation, 135; of tuberculosis, 245

Crampton, C. Ward, M.D., 129, 289

Dangerous trades, 191

Darlington, Thomas, M.D., 297

Death rates: of bronchitis, 67; of pneumonia, 67; how to reduce, 131

Defects, physical: index of community needs, 33-44; removable, of children, 22; schools manufacture, 139; income distribution, 169

Delinquency, and mouth breathing, 47

Dental Hygiene Council, 95

Dental sanitation, 89-103; surface for breeding germs, 63; dentists, 93; state organizations, 95; clinics needed, 171; insurance companies treat teeth, 204; family instruction, 245; indigestion, 272; early treatises, 274; advertising parlors, 281

Devine, Professor Edward T., 174

Diet: cooking lessons at home, 180; overeating, 201, 347; improper, 210; proper and regular, 212; adapted to need, 214, 401; kitchens, 267; irregular eating, 272, 347

Diet kitchens, 267

Diphtheria, 18, 65

Dispensaries and hospitals: dental supervision, 102; cooeperate with schools, 174-183, 185; welfare nurse, 188; emergency, 227; to prevent duplication, 239; lack of, 240; teach baby feeding, 261; inefficient, 278; social interest of, 292

Doing things at school, 159-165; free meals, 44, 161, 171; may hurt, 181; cripple social agencies, 185, 189; danger of malpractice, 184, 189; analogous to model tenements, 186

Do-nothing ailments, 329-334

Ear trouble, 83-85; periodic tests for, 201, 207

Edinburgh, 70

Ellis Island, 238

Environment: health problem, 9; tests, 120, 320; injurious school, 139-150; effect on physique, 203; and tuberculosis, 229-251; do-nothing ailments, 329; within our control, 336; in combating liquor, 362

Epidemics, 18, 38

Epilepsy, 47, 49

Ergograph, 125-127

Erysipelas, 65

Ethics, professional, 81, 101, 281

Eugenics, and heredity, 336

European remedies, 159-165

Eye trouble, 72-82; in high school, 40; catching diseases, 69-71; caused by bad teeth, 89; eyeglasses, free, 161, 164, 171, 184; in business, 193; examination for adults, 201; tuberculin test, 238; inefficient inspection of, 300; teachers' test, 301

Examination, physical: of school children, 33-138; best test of health needs, 33-44; individual record of, 35, 312; Snellen test, 73, 77; of teachers, 153; for work certificates, 190-200, 237, 301; by railroads, 193; at West Point, 199; periodic after school, 201-207, 218, 228; semi-annual, 202; tuberculin tests, 240; stripped, at Leipsic, 289; follow-up work, 295-300; of teachers and sex hygiene, 389

Family: unit of social treatment, 174; examining parties, 237, 241; tuberculosis histories, 241

Fear and bodily disorders, 392

Flick, Lawrence F., M.D., 229

Follow-up work, 295-301

Fox, Hugh F., 351

Fresh air: others' standards of, 9; fiends, 66; outings, 176, 178; economic value of, 195; ventilation at school, 142; ventilation at home, 210; ventilation at work, 212; ventilation at sanatoriums, 214; ventilation at churches and theaters, 217. See Air

Georgia, 350

Germany, 160, 204

Germs, disease: in milk bottles, 14; isolation, 31; germ sociology, 57-71; dental sanitation, 89-103; locating germ factories, 238; tuberculosis, 234

Getting things done, 166-173; doing of highest kind, 183; study underlying causes, 189; by local agencies, 287

Glands, 88

Goler, George W., M.D., 196

Gorgas, William C., M.D., 59

Government. See Administration

Greenwich House, 287

Grenfell Association, 197

Grippe, 379

Gulick, Luther H., M.D., 123, 208

Habits of health, 208-217; combat tobacco, 364; mental hygiene, 394; and Nature Fore, 400

Hartley House, 287

Hartley, Robert M., 252

Havana, 60

Hawthorne Club, 287

Headache, 210

Heredity, 335-342

High schools need physical tests, 39

Hip trouble. See Tuberculosis

Home conditions: indexed by epidemics, 32; indexed at school, 33; among different incomes, 39; cooking instructions, 180; weighing parties, 241; score card, 337; promote alcoholism, 348

Hughes, Governor Charles E., 201

Hunter, Robert, 167

Hyatt, Thaddeus P., D.D.S., 94

Impetigo, 65

Income, 34, 38, 39

India, 108

Indigestion: anti-social, 10; due to teeth, 272

Individual record card, 35, 312-314

Industrial hygiene: educates laborers, 131; factory conditions, 221, 227; factory reforms, 403; employers, 3, 210, 218, 360, 367; employees, 202, 211, 219, 228, 360

Influenza, 65-68

Ingram, Helene, 177

Insomnia, 392

Inspection: of milk, 26, 259; score cards, 27, 29, 337; of school children, 43, 61, 296; of factories, 131; of milch cows, 260; of transmissible diseases, 295; of foods, 307

Instinct, motive to health, 12, 14, 94

International Congress on tuberculosis, 238, 245

Itch, 65

Japan, 23, 287, 309

Junior Sea Breeze, 267

Kansas City, 161

Kidney trouble, 217

Labrador, 197

Lavatories, public, 217

Laws: nonenforcement demoralizing, 4; define rights, 23; when not enforced, 25; should not injure health, 151; enforcement better than character, 219; regarding milk, 258; licensing practitioners, 280; need machinery, 303, 348; to control liquor, 343, 355; test of prohibition, 353; on patent medicine, 373; on pure foods, 379

Leipsic, 289

Louisiana, 350, 376

Lung trouble. See Tuberculosis

Machinery, health: unsatisfactory coordination, 296; necessary, 302-309; five elements, 303

Mackenzie, W. Leslie, M.D., 132

Magistrates: promote disorder, 173; enforce health laws, 303

Malnutrition, 35; income distribution, 39; signs and tests, 86; prevention of, 184; education of family, 241

Massachusetts, 74

Maxwell, Superintendent William H., 286, 288

Measles, 64

Mental hygiene, 391-397; blues, anti-social, 10; hospital welfare work, 182; moral clinics, 276, 291, 295; and insomnia, 392

Meyer, William, M.D., 47

Milk: unclean dairies, 10; scalding receptacles of, 17; carries typhoid, 18; inspector's outfit, 24; tests of protection, 25; score cards, 26, 259, 337; public should know, 219; fight for pure, 252-267; New York conferences, 255, 260; breast feeding, 266

Milk committee, New York, 258, 260

Minnesota, 45, 269

Misgovernment causes sickness, 10

Mitchell, S. Weir, M.D., 73

Montclair, 265

Mosquitoes, 59, 307

Motives, seven health, 11-22, 377

Mouth breathing, 45-56; and delinquency, 47; adenoid parties, 55; causes deafness, 83; injures baby teeth, 89; industrial disadvantage of, 195; in Labrador, 197; preventable defect, 272; inefficient inspection of, 300

National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis, 236, 246

National Board of Health, 133, 292, 308

National Bureau of Labor, 199

National Bureau of Census, 305

National Bureau of Animal Industry, 306

National Bureau of Education, 171, 292

National Playground Association, 118

National School Hygiene Association, 139

Nature Fore and Nature Back, 398-403

Negroes and alcoholism, 350

Nervousness, 85; and school life, 108; physical defects, 110; preventable, 111; causes of, 112; habit, 111, 113; from tobacco, 363

Neurasthenia. See Mental Hygiene

New Jersey, 12

Newsholme, Arthur, M.D., 120, 131, 229, 241

New York City, 16, 25, 34

New York Juvenile Asylum, 47

New York state, 12, 24

New York State Charities Aid Association, 236, 242

Nicotinism. See Tobacco

Normal schools, 110

North, Professor Lila V., 142

Notification of diseases, 31, 41

Nuisances, 17, 18, 23, 366

Nurses at school, 230, 286, 293, 300. See Milk

Oliver, Thomas, 203

Orthopedics. See Tuberculosis

Ophthalmia, 65

Oppenheimer, Nathan, M.D., 110

Osteopathy, 275

Panama, 59

Parents: and school hygiene, 3; interested by examinations, 41; should cooeperate with physician, 279; interested in school examinations, 297; need health reports, 310; heredity, 335-342; nicotinism, 368

Parks and playgrounds, 7, 32, 118, 122, 142, 186, 290, 294

Parochial schools, 189, 198

Patent medicines: evils of, 369-377; advertisements, 380

Patten, Professor Simon N., 9, 14, 33, 165

Pediculosis, 69-71

Pennsylvania, 311

Philadelphia, 34

Phthisis. See Tuberculosis

Physical training, 115-117; in New York City, 296; and sex hygiene, 387

Physician: preventive medicine, 268-282; and eyes, 81; semi-annual visit to, 204; self-advertisement, 378; school, 173, 286, 293, 315

Physiological age, 105, 289, 387

Pittsburgh, 269

Plague, 15, 57

Pneumonia, 67, 379

Preventable diseases: those not communicable, 272. See Catching Diseases

Private schools, 189, 198, 283, 291, 330

Prohibition laws, 348, 350, 355

Pro-slum motive, 19-20

Public Education Association, New York, 287, 298

Publicity, 45, 81, 99, 292, 310-321, 382

Quarantine, first, 15; national, 308

Records: of disease centers, 31; defective, 32; individual, 35, 312-314

Reform's failure, 349

Registration: of diseases, 31

Relief, material: sound principles of, 174; at school, 175, 179, 184; indiscriminate, harmful, 332

Richman, Julia, 172

Riggs disease, 92

Rights: political, 21; not enforced, 23-32; of workmen at work, 190; machinery for enforcing, 283-322

Riis, Jacob, 18

Ringworm, 65

Rochester, N.Y., 262, 266

Rome, 15

Roosevelt, Theodore, 60, 118

Rural districts: encourage disease, 13; compared, 32; physical defects, 74; schools unsanitary, 141; hygiene in Great Britain, 308

Russia, 108

Sage Foundation, 285

St. Vitus's dance, 111

Salmon, Professor Lucy M., 355

Scabies, 65. See Itch

Scarlatina, 65

Scarlet fever: thrives in slums, 18; signs and method of infection, 65; "peeling," 132; compulsory removal of cases, 240; germ carried in milk, 264

School hygiene: and employers, 3; instruction compulsory, 3-10; practice of, 5, 18; biological engineering, 139, 203, 339; departments of, 283-293; in New York City, 294, 296-301

Score cards, 27, 29, 259, 337

Scranton, 269

Sea Breeze fresh-air home, 176

Sea Breeze seaside hospital, 9, 240

Seaman, L.L., M.D., 23

Seattle, 161

Sedgwick, Professor William T., 304

Sex hygiene, 384-389

Sexual deviates, 182

Shoes, tight, 401

Sickness, preventable, cost of, 278

Sleep and vitality, 201, 272

Slum, a menace, 13, 20

Smallpox: epidemics great teachers, 6; conquered by vaccination, 7; neglected in rural Pennsylvania, 18; comes rarely to cities, 31; compulsory removal of cases, 240

Snedden, Professor David S., 33, 165, 311

Snellen eye test, 73, 77

Society for Sanitary and Moral Prophylaxis, 384

Southern states, 351

Spargo, John, 33, 167

Spitting, 223, 235

State activity, 4, 73, 121, 236, 292, 306

Statistics, object of, 131, 134, 333

Strauss, Nathan, 260

Streets, 15, 122, 217, 254, 348

Study hours, too long, 287

Sweating, 152, 211

Taxes, taxpayers. See Budget

Teacher's health: tests of, 152-158

Teachers: social work, 172; health passport, 202; for tuberculous pupils, 237; excluded when tuberculous, 242; and physicians, 279; physical examination of, 284; use of alcohol, 358; cigarettes, 368; use clippings, 382

Teeth. See Dental Sanitation

Temperance. See Alcoholism

Tenement reforms, 20, 186, 209, 304, 403

Thompson, J. Arthur, 336

Tobacco: instruction at school, 3; economic injuries of, 201; forbidden to employees, 210; evils of nicotinism, 363-368, 386

Tonsils, hypertrophied, 44

Trachoma, 69-71

Trudeau, E.L., M.D., 274

Tuberculosis: pupils excluded from school because of, 65; aggravated by colds, 68; bone tuberculosis, 87, 88, 236; and bad teeth, 90, 99; in teachers, 153; examination for working papers, 191; periodical examination for, 201; last days of, 229-251; eye and skin tests for, 240; tests of cows, 260; carried in milk, 264; out-of-door treatment, 274; only predisposition to, inherited, 335

Typhoid: a rural disease, 13; carried in milk, 264

University Extension Society, 178

Vacation schools, playgrounds, 109, 296

Veiller, Lawrence, 9

Vitality tests and statistics, 124-138

Water, drinking: reason for works, 15; factories pollute, 17; fountains, 217; public responsibility for, 226; protecting sources, 307

Welfare work, 7, 221-225

West Point, 199

Wheeler, Herbert L., D.D.S., 93

Whipple, George C., Ph. D., 13, 16

White plague. See Tuberculosis

Whooping cough, 64

Williams, Alida S., 72, 122

Williams, Linsly R., M.D., 241

Work: physical examination for working papers, 190-200, 285; healthful habits, 208-217; unpatented medicine, 334. See Industrial Hygiene

Young Men's Christian Association, 227

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- Typographical errors corrected in text: Page 60: heath replaced with health Text moved to avoid splitting paragraphs with tables: First half of last paragraph on page 25, moved to page 29, following Table III and Table IV on pages 26 to 28. First half of last paragraph on page 63, moved to page 66, following Table VIII on pages 64 to 65. First half of last paragraph on page 181, moved to page 183, following Illustration on page 182. Continuation of paragraph begun on page 222, moved from page 225 to the end of the paragraph on page 222, to precede text ads/Illustrations on pages 223 and 224. Continuation of paragraph begun on page 254, moved from page 258 to the end of the paragraph on page 254, to precede Conference information on pages 255 to 257. First half of last paragraph on page 337, moved to page 340, following Score Cards on pages 338 and 339. -

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